by the Philippine Constitution, the Omnibus Election Code (Batas Pambansa Bilang ) and other relevant election laws, RESOLVED. BATAS PAMBANSA BLG. – OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES. 2. COMELEC , AS AMENDED, REPUBLIC ACT NO. AND. Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines (Batas Pambansa Blg. ). [[No Author].] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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Election and campaign periods. The campaign periods shall not include the day before and the day of the election.

Philippine legal codes

Section 4 Obligation to register and vote. Section 5 Postponement of election. Section 6 Failure of election. The Commission shall send sufficient copies of its resolution for the holding of the election to its provincial election supervisors and election registrars for dissemination, who shall post copies thereof in at least three conspicuous places preferably where public meetings are held in each city or municipality affected. Section 8 Election Code to be available in pambans places.

Section 9 Official mail and telegram relative to elections.

Telegrams of the same nature shall likewise be transmitted free of charge by government telecommunications and similar facilities. It shall be the duty of the Postmaster General, the Director of 881 Bureau of Telecommunications, and the managers of private telecommunication companies to transmit immediately and in preference to all other communications or telegrams messages reporting election results and such other messages or communications which the Commission may require or may be necessary to ensure free, honest and orderly elections.

Section 10 Election expenses. The Commission may direct that in the provinces, cities, or municipalities, the election expenses chargeable to the Commission be advanced by the province, city or municipality concerned subject to reimbursement by the Commission upon presentation of the proper bill. Funds needed by the Commission to defray the expenses for the holding of regular and special elections, referenda and plebiscites shall be provided in the regular appropriations of the Commission which, upon request, shall immediately be released to the Commission.

In case of deficiency, the amount so provided shall be augmented from the batsa activities funds in the general appropriations act and from those specifically bata for the purpose in special laws. Section 11 Failure to assume office. This disqualifications to be a candidate herein provided shall be deemed removed upon the declaration by competent authority that said insanity or incompetence had been removed or after the expiration of a period of five years from his service of sentence, unless within the same period he again becomes disqualified.

Regular election for President and Vice-President. The President-elect and the Vice-President-elect shall assume office at bahas o’clock noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter when the term of his successor shall begin.

Section 14 Special election for President and Vice-President. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph 2Section 19, Article VIII of the Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Batasang Pambansa. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4Section 16 of Article VIII of the Constitution.

The convening of the Batasang Pambansa cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within seventy days before the date of the presidential election of Section 15 Canvass of votes for President and Vice-President by the provincial or city board of canvassers.

It shall meet continuously from day to day until the canvass is completed, but may adjourn only for the purpose of awaiting the other election returns. Each time the board adjourns, it shall make a total of all the votes cast for each candidate for President and for Vice-President, duly authenticated by the signatures and thumbmarks of all the members of the provincial, city or district board of canvassers, furnishing the Commission in Manila by the fastest means of communication a copy thereof, and making available the data contained therein to mass media and other interested parties.

Upon the completion of the canvass, the board hatas prepare a certificate of canvass showing the votes received by each candidate for the office of the Pambanaa and for Vice-President, duly authenticated by the signatures and thumbmarks of all the members of the provincial, city or district board of canvassers. Upon the completion of the certificate of canvass, the pambanda shall certify and transmit the said certificate of canvass to the Speaker of the Batasang Pambansa.

The provincial, city and district boards of canvassers shall prepare the certificate of canvass for the election of President and Vice-President, supported by a statement of votes by polling place, in quintuplicate by the use of carbon papers or such other means as the Commission shall prescribe to the end that all five copies shall be legibly produced in one handwriting. The five copies of the certificate of canvass must bear the signatures and thumbmarks of all the members of the board.

Upon the completion of these certificates and statements, they shall be enclosed in envelopes furnished by the Commission and sealed, and immediately distributed as follows: Failure to comply with the requirements of this section shall constitute an election offense. Section 17 Correction of errors in certificate and supporting statement already transmitted to the Speaker.

Section 18 Preservation of ballot boxes, their keys, and disposition of their contents. Section 19 When certificate of canvass is incomplete or bears erasures or alterations.

Said psmbansa returns shall be submitted by personal delivery to the Speaker within two days from receipt of notice. When it appears that any certificate of canvass or supporting statement of votes by polling place bears erasures or alterations which may cast doubt as to the veracity of the number of votes stated therein and may affect the result of the election, the Batasang Pambansa upon request of the Presidential or Vice-Presidential candidate concerned or his party shall, for the sole purpose of verifying the actual number of votes cast for President or Vice-President, count the votes as they appear in the copies of the election returns for the Commission.

For this purpose, the Speaker shall require the Commission to deliver its copies of the election returns to the Batasang Pambansa. Section 20 Proclamation of the President-elect and Vice-President-elect. In case there are certificates of canvass which have not been submitted to the Speaker of pxmbansa Batasang Pambansa on account of missing election returns, a proclamation may be made if the missing certificates will not affect the results of the election.

In case the certificates of canvass which were not submitted on account of missing election returns will affect the results of the election, no proclamation shall be made. The Speaker shall immediately instruct the boards of canvassers concerned to obtain the missing election returns from the boards of election inspectors or, if the returns have been lost or destroyed upon prior authority from the Commission, to use any authentic copy of said election returns batqs the purpose of conducting the canvass, and thereafter issue the certificates of canvass.

The certificates of canvass shall be immediately transmitted to the Speaker of the Batasang Pambansa. Proclamation shall be made only upon submission of all certificates of canvass or when the missing certificates of canvass will not affect the results of the election. Regular election of Members of the Batasang Pambansa. Section 22 Special election for Members of the Batasang Pambansa. The Batasang Pambansa through a duly approved resolution or an official communication of the Speaker when it is not in session shall certify to the Commission the existence of said pambanza.

Composition of the Batasang Pambansa. Any province that may hereafter be created or any component city that may hereafter be declared by or pursuant to law as a highly urbanized city shall be entitled in the immediately following election to at least one Member or such number of Members as it may be entitled to on the basis of the number of the inhabitants and on the same uniform and progressive ratio used in the last preceding apportionment.

The number of Members apportioned to the province out of which the new province was created or where the new highly urbanized city is geographically located shall be correspondingly adjusted by the Commission, but such adjustment pmabansa not be made within one hundred twenty days before the election.

Voting by province and its component cities, by highly urbanized city or by district in Metropolitan Manila.

The pambansx corresponding to the number of Member or Members to be elected in a constituency who receive the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. Each sector shall be entitled to four representatives, two of whom shall come from Luzon, one from Visayas, and one from Mindanao: Provided, That the youth sector shall be entitled to two additional sectoral representatives who shall be elected from any part of the country.

Scope of the sectors. It includes agricultural tenants and lessees, rural workers and farm employees, owner-cultivators, settlers and small fishermen. Selection of sectoral representatives. The President shall appoint baats among the nominees submitted by the aforementioned organizations or aggroupments the representatives of each sector. In recognizing the most representative and generally recognized organizations or aggroupments, the Ministers of Agrarian Reform and of Agriculture and Food, the Minister of Labor and Employment, and the Ministers of Local Government and Education, Culture and Sports shall consider:.

The President of the Philippines shall, in writing, notify the Secretary-General of the Batasang Pambansa of the appointment made by him of any sectoral representative. Except as herein otherwise provided, sectoral representatives shall have the same functions, responsibilities, rights, privileges, qualifications and disqualifications as the representatives from the provinces and their component cities, highly urbanized cities or districts of Metropolitan Manila.

Regular elections of local officials.

Official COMELEC Website :: Commission on Elections

The officials elected shall assume office on the thirtieth day of June next following the election and shall hold office for six years and until their successors shall baatas been elected and qualified. All local incumbent officials whose tenure of office shall expire on March 23, shall hold office until June 30, or until their successors shall have been elected and qualified: Provided, That they cannot be suspended or removed without just cause.

Component and highly urbanized cities.

The electorate of highly urbanized cities shall not vote in the election for provincial officials of the province in which it is located: Provided, however, That no component city shall be declared or be entitled to a highly urbanized city status within ninety days prior to any election. The Sangguniang Pampook of the autonomous regions. The President shall appoint an additional seven representatives in each region whenever in his judgment any other sector is not properly represented in the Sangguniang Pampook as a result of the elections.

Apportionment of members of btas Sangguniang Pampook. Election of members of Sangguniang Pampook. The candidates corresponding to the number of member or members to be elected in a constituency who receive the highest number of votes shall be declared elected.

The President of the Philippines shall in writing notify the Speaker of the Sangguniang Pampook of each region of the appointment made by him of any sectoral representative.

The sectoral representatives shall have the same functions, responsibilities, rights, privileges, qualifications and disqualifications as the elective provincial representatives to the Sangguniang Pampook: Provided, however, That no defeated candidate for member of the Sangguniang Pampook in the immediately preceding election shall be appointed as sectoral representative.

Provided, That the appointee shall come from the same province or sector of the member being replaced. They may not be removed or replaced except in accordance with the internal rules of said assembly 8881 provisions of pertinent laws. The election of members of the Sangguniang Pampook of the two regions shall be held simultaneously with the local elections batxs Those elected in said elections shall have a term of four years starting June 30, Those elected in the election of to be held simultaneously with the elections of Members of the Batasang Pambansa shall have a term of six years.

Regular election of barangay officials. No person who files a certificate of candidacy shall represent or allow himself to be represented as a candidate of any political pambahsa or any other organization; and no political party, political group, political committee, civic, religious, professional, or other organization or organized group of whatever nature shall intervene in his nomination or in the filing of his certificate of candidacy or give aid or support, directly or indirectly, material or otherwise favorable to or against his campaign for election: Provided, That pambnsa provision shall not apply to the members of the family of a candidate within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity nor to the personal campaign staff of the candidate which shall not be more than one for every one hundred registered voters in his barangay: Provided, however, That without prejudice to any liability that may be incurred, no permit to hold a public meeting shall be denied on the ground that the provisions of this paragraph may or will be violated.

House of Representatives

Nothing bagas this section, however, shall be construed as in any manner affecting or constituting an impairment of the freedom of individuals to support or oppose any candidate for any barangay office.

The candidate shall state the barangay office for which he is a candidate. The certificate of candidacy shall be filed with the secretary of the sangguniang barangay who shall have the bwtas duty to receive said certificate of candidacy and to immediately acknowledge receipt thereof.

In case the secretary refuses to receive the same, or in the case of his absence or non-availability, a candidate may file his certificate with the election registrar of the city or municipality concerned.

The secretary of the sangguniang barangay or the election registrar, as the case may be, shall prepare a consolidated list all the candidates and shall post said list in the barangay hall and in other conspicuous places in the barangay at least ten days before the election.

Any elective or appointive municipal, city, provincial or national official or employee, or those in the civil or military service, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, shall be considered automatically resigned upon the filing of certificate of candidacy for a barangay office. In case no public elementary school teachers are available, the Commission shall designate batws registered voter in the polling place who is not an incumbent pambanza official nor related to any candidate for any position in that barangay within the fourth civil degree of affinity or consanguinity.

The original of this report shall be delivered immediately to the barangay board of canvassers. The second copy shall be delivered to the election registrar and the third copy shall be delivered to the secretary of the sangguniang barangay who shall keep the same on file. Registration of voters and list of voters. Any voter may challenge the qualification of any person seeking to register and said challenge shall be heard and decided on the same day by the board of election tellers.

The final list of voters shall be posted in the polling places at least two days before election day. The registration of any voter shall not be transferred without written notice at least two days before the date of election. Not later than the day following the barangay election, the board of election tellers shall deliver the list of voters to the election registrar for custody and safekeeping.


Sheridan Le Fanu’s most celebrated novel In Uncle Silas, Maud Ruthyn, the young, naïve heroine, is plagued by Madame de la Rougierre from. Uncle Silas. J. Sheridan Le Fanu. This web edition published by [email protected] Adelaide. Last updated Wednesday, December 17, at To the best of our. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg.

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Perhaps no other writer in the history of English fiction so completely mastered the technique of creating an atmosphere of unrelieved suspense and terror as Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu This is surely evident in all of his supernatural fiction: But nowhere is Le Fanu’s success as great as in Uncle Silas. Death prowls the odd pages of this book — in Maud Ruthyn, her father Austin, the grotesque Madame de la Rougierre, in the shadowy suspicion that surrounds Uncle Silas, in the chilly atmosphere at Knowl and the even more haunting terror pervading Bartram-Haugh, in the gloomy night thoughts and somber reflections about death that occur and reoccur.

With consummate skill, Le Fanu has truly captured the secret fears and dreads that grip us all. One of a half dozen or so nineteenth-century novels still read for pleasure rather than as a school exercise, Uncle Silas is the Victorian mystery story par excellence, displaying both Le Fanu’s considerable narrative ability and his emotional power.

It has remained in print since its first appearance inhas been translated into several languages, and has been filmed in England as The Inheritor. Its longevity and perennial appeal are both well established and well deserved, for as Frederick Shroyer says in his Introduction, “It is one of the most effective, gripping novels of terror … ever written. Today, as in the past, Uncle Silas continues to serve diabolically well to chill the reader’s psychic bones.

Now republished by Dover, this chilling Victorian novel will be a welcome treat for all Le Fanu admirers, mystery fans, English majors, and every reader who enjoys a well-told tale.

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Uncle Silas: A Tale of Bartram-Haugh by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu

The Monk Penguin Classics. The Castle of Otranto: The Monk Oxford World’s Classics. Dover Publications November 2, Language: Start reading Uncle Silas on your Kindle in under a minute.

Don’t have a Kindle? Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention uncle silas madame de la rougierre french governess wilkie collins gothic novel gothic literature mysterious uncle joseph sheridan maud ruthyn gothic novels sheridan le fanu minor characters ghost stories read this book modern reader father death silas son gothic romance gothic tale silas whose.

Showing of 47 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. A tale of murder and greed. This is a fairly straightforward tale of an heiress who is left to the tender mercies of her enigmatic Uncle Silas.

I enjoyed the dark and sinister atmosphere of the novel, and I loved the “lock room mystery”. The characters were well portrayed from the slightly “hysterical” young Maud whose narration delivers the story, through to the “over the top” portrayal of the French governess, the creepy Madame. Loved the beginning the expectation of the novel, but by reaching the middle of the novel when Uncle Silas came to centre stage the momentum seemed to flounder and only again pick up speed towards the end.

Since completing the novel which was entertaining I can’t help but wonder if the author couldn’t have raised the tension further by not portraying Madame as so very unattractive. Spoiler Alert This book was a bit tedious. Victorian authors used too many adjectives and run-on sentences. The build up seemed to be never ending, but the climax was very terrifying indeed.

Not all loose ends were tied together satsfactorily, such as what was Madame’s connection with Dudley and Silas Ruthyn? What happened to Dudley’s wife? Wouldn’t the sale of Maud’s jewelry have implicated Dudley? Which is how, I assume, he made his way to Australia. Overall, a good gothic tale. Have only just started it but, it’s really good so far. At first glance you’d think Stoker’s really influenced Le Fanu’s work but, since Le Fanu was first published I forget how many years yncle Bram Stoker Trust me people sillas listen to book and brace yourself.

Here we have poor actually quite richyoung,meek and naive Maude who just can’t seem to stand up to anyone; her father; Madame; her evil cousin nor her uncle. All in all, this tale was quite hard to put down. In the end good prevailed umcle evil and she lived to tell the story. But getting there is well worth the trip through the pages of Uncle Silas! For a “long ago” written book, I thought the detail and intrigue was sulas.

I enjoyed reading a longer length book as those I have been reading have been shorter and less involved. This is a real rip-snorter of a gothic novel. Eighteen-year-old Maude, whose mother is dead, has been raised by her wealthy father, an adherent silaa a peculiar Scandinavian science religion.

There are dark rumors afoot about the character of Maude’s father’s brother, the mysterious Uncle Silas, into whose guardianship Maude is entrusted at her father’s fahu. Maude is the only thing standing between the money she will inherit from her father when she comes of age and Silas’ considerable debt.

Uncle Silas: A Tale of Bartram-Haugh by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu – Free Ebook

Laudanum addiction, poison, big old houses with uninhabited wings, a creepy cousin Silas’ sonand an evil French governess: Excellent author of suspenseful tales. A good gothic sioas.

Mysterious characters and motivations. Very nice read for a rainy autumn afternoon curled up with a cup of tea. See all 47 reviews.

Uncle Silas by J. Sheridan Le Fanu | : Books

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Boa notícia para você, o livro de Isaiah Berlin em arquivo PDF pode ser Filename: ; ISBN: ; Release Date: . Results 1 – 10 Estudos sobre a humanidade: uma antologia de ensaios. by Isaiah Berlin; Henry Hardy; Roger Hausheer. Print book. Language: English. Isaiah Berlin OM, nado en Riga (Imperio Ruso) o 6 de xuño de e finado en e obtivo o premio John Locke de filosofía superando o seu compañeiro de estudos, Para Berlin, os valores son creacións de e para a humanidade e non .

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This paper explores a theoretical and political approach to discuss the idea and ideal of freedom. This approach is built through a dialogue between different theoretical views, especially Isaiah Berlin’s concept of freedom as non-interference, Philip Pettit’s idea of freedom as non-domination, and Nancy Hirschmann’s constructivist freedom.

Isaiah Berlin

It sustains that the idea of ‘non-oppression’ is a useful approach to consider freedom in its complexity. Reading freedom from the ‘key’ of oppression allows us to think of not only ‘spaces’ of freedom, estuudos also who is free. This ‘key’ relates freedom to freedom of choice and, at the same time, indicates the necessity of non-domination and attention to the construction of choosing subjects.

This paper intends to emphasize that the choices take place in contexts, and these contexts involve relationships, emotions and values. They can be understood as a subjective aspect linked to choice; however, we want to highlight that social standards, structures of power and social meanings are what shape this subjectivity. The social construction happens constantly, quietly and every day, and must be considered whenever we discuss freedom.

In “Two Concepts of Liberty”, Isaiah Berlin develops the approach that deals with freedom in a dichotomous way. It is important to remember that Berlin is not conducting a linguistic or semantic analysis of the two concepts of freedom. Berlin’s two contrasting notions are freedom in its positive sense, characterized as ‘self-control’, and freedom in its negative sense, conceived as ‘non-interference’.

Initially, we could summarise the differences between the two concepts as follows: While the negative notion concerns avoiding interference sohre the actions of individuals and groups, the positive notion is concerned with issues related to the nature and exercise of power.

Berlin describes the negative freedom as follows:. Political liberty in this sense is simply the area within which a man can act unobstructed by others. Coercion implies the deliberate interference of other human beings within the area in which I could otherwise act.

Reading Freedom from the Theme of Oppression

You lack political liberty or freedom only if you are prevented from attaining a goal by other human beings BERLIN,p. Even more directly, Berlin says that the defence of liberty consists in the “negative goal of preventing interference” BERLIN,p. Thus, negative freedom is characterized by the absence of something — the interference; while positive freedom is characterized by the presence — of action, of participation in decision-making and self-determination: The value of freedom is in the possibility and act of making a choice between different, equally valuable and often irreconcilable purposes.

By choosing a value or an end instead of another, we realise what can be called self-creation. For Philip Pettit ba reference author to Roman neo-republicanism, Berlin’s separation of freedom is flawed. He argues that the dichotomy between positive and negative freedom is inaccurate and neglects a third possibility of understanding freedom: The neo-republican freedom, defined as non-domination, should not be seen only as an intermediate option between the formulations of non-interference and self-control, but as an ideal to be followed.

Pettit b emphasises that the concept of freedom as non-domination comes from an ancient tradition which means not being dominated or subjugated by anyone 1. The ideal of freedom as non-domination has its own conceptual status; it is a negative one, however, different from the liberal concept of freedom as non-interference. What makes Pettit b claim that his concept of freedom, although negative, differs from the concept of liberal negative freedom defined by Berlin is the content of absence that is required in each concept.

The two concepts evoke the notion of interference. Interference constitutes an intentional act by which the agents are responsible. Acts of interference can be both coercion of the body and of the will, or just a kind of manipulation. It includes acts that reduce the alternatives of choice or which increase the cost associated with a choice. Therefore, interference can reduce choice or increase the cost of opting for one of the alternatives PETTIT, bpp.

According to Pettit bgiven that the ideal of negative freedom offered by Berlin sees all kinds of interference as an impediment for freedom, the law, although necessary, is considered a limitation of freedom. Pettit’s negative ideal of freedom is not concerned with all forms of interference, but with arbitrary interference.

All arbitrary interference is a form of domination. The arbitrariness humanidadw when an individual has humajidade ability to act according to his will, to his arbitrium, esthdos taking into account those who will be affected by their actions.

Thus, “someone dominates or subjugates another to the extent that 1 they have the capacity to interfere 2 with impunity and at will 3 in certain choices that the other is in a position to make” PETTIT,p. Pettit b explains what arbitrary acts are: An act is perpetrated on an arbitrary basis, we can say, if it is subject just to the arbitriumthe humaidade or judgment, of the agent; the agent was in a position to choose it or not choose it, at their pleasure” PETTIT, bp.

Since republican freedom’s concern is with the absence of arbitrary interference, that is, absence of domination, it will mainly differ in two aspects from freedom as non-interference. The first, according to the republican concept, is that it is possible to have domination without actual interference; the second indicates that someone can be free even suffering interference.

These differences reveal Pettit’s b effort to point out the distance between his conception of freedom and the liberal view of freedom as non-interference. The first reason is that, for the Republican authors, there may be domination even without an effective interference. This happens when someone has the power to interfere, even if in fact uumanidade do not. Pettit a refers to the republican tradition to claim that a person, while living at the mercy of another, is being dominated: The fact that the idea of freedom as non-interference iisaiah not imply that there is nothing inherently oppressive when some have power over others as long as they are not effectively exercising such power, makes, according to Pettit bliberalism tolerant with domination relations berlib home 2at work or to the electorate.

The second difference highlighted by Pettit b is that republicanism acknowledges freedom where liberalism considers it compromised.

This is directly connected to the understanding of the law. In the sense of freedom as non-interference, the fact of being subject to laws consists of a loss of freedom. To republicanism, laws that correspond to the thoughts and general interests can even be considered as a form of z, but do not constitute a form of domination; therefore, they do not compromise the republican liberty. The great condition for the law not to constitute arbitrary interference is that it takes into account all those who estjdos be affected by it, i.

Pettit and Lovettp.

The first and most important idea is the conception of a free person as rstudos who does not live under the domain of others. In this view, free is the one who does not live under the arbitrary desire or domination of others. The second idea is humanieade concept of a free state as one that promotes the freedom of etsudos citizens and is not a source of domination.

This is most easily achieved through humanidase mixed constitution and the ‘rule of law’, which limit the power of the ruler. The third idea is the design of good citizenship as a constant and vigilant commitment to preserve the State in its distinctive role, which is to protect against domination and not be, by itself, an agent of domination.

In view of Berlin’s and Pettit’s b elaborations, we are faced with the following picture: On the other hand, Philip Pettit’s b republican freedom as non-domination huamnidade the importance of considering the contexts of domination, calling attention to the possibility of not being free, even without actual interference.

Thus, Pettit b offers us a tool to think about a number of relationships that isiah receive the same kind of attention if we only used Berlin’s theory. Although Berlin’s and Pettit’s b idea of freedom focuses on the free subjects, my argument is that they lack a stronger question about who makes the choices and who is dominated; lacking in their approaches is an emphasis on the life of the subjects and the complexities of their relationships in a social context.

The argument that Pettit’s b formulation lacks a greater attention to the subjects who suffers domination does not ignore Pettit’s b efforts to dialogue with different theoretical perspectives, and particularly with feminism.

In Republicanism the author states that “Not only can republicanism offer persuasive articulation estudo the central feminist claims, it also provides an articulation that has had a continuous history within the ranks of feminists themselves” PETTIT, bp. Certainly, the choice of illustrating the idea of domination with an example of a woman’s situation in the domestic sphere is not random, and it somehow demonstrates Pettit’s concern to dialogue with feminist political theory.

It was precisely with similar examples as the character of Nora that feminists such as Nancy Hirschmann and Marilyn Friedman demonstrate their reservations to the scope of the idea of freedom as non-domination developed by the author. It is worth noting that these, as well as other feminist authors, recognize the relevance and importance of Pettit’s formulations. After all, the author’s theory raises the question of domination as a key issue for the contemporary political thinking and, therefore, there are meeting points with different feminist approaches.

In this paper, I want to draw attention to Hirschmann critique to Pettitespecially the question that he neglects the social context in his formulation about freedom. The feminist theories show that different characteristics, such as gender, have fundamental impact on position the different individuals in the society’s structure 3.

Issues as gender, race and class unequally distribute the individuals in social positions, and different positions in the social structure provide advantages and disadvantages, incentives and disincentives to different choices and life opportunities. In view of the importance of social context to consider the situations of domination, and therefore of freedom, questions about who is free and who is the subject of freedom are central to Nancy Hirschmann feminist concept of freedom, which is developed in a direct critical dialogue with different theoretical perspectives, therefore offering us an opportunity to observe the challenges that the feminist perspective poses for political theory in general.

Hirschmann feminist perspective is similar to the concept of negative liberty and the idea that to be free is to be able to choose. However — and this is the point —, for her, the theories on which freedom are based, the ability to make choices, neglect, invariably, the conditions under which these choices are made. This concern extends our sight beyond ‘freedom itself’, and leaves us to think about the processes and situations involved with the very formation of desires, choices and will of the choosing subjects.

Nevertheless, more than considering the restraints and incentives, it is necessary to think that the contexts are fundamental to the formation of the subject that will choose. Therefore, the notion of ‘social construction’ is fundamental to the feminist vision of freedom developed by Hirschmann According to her words, “Freedom consists in the Power of the self to make choices and act on them, but the self that make choices, including her desires and self-understanding, is socially constructed An understanding of freedom that includes the experience of women, highlighting women as a subject of this freedom, a subject who makes a choice, should be aware of situations of domination that women experience.

From this standpoint, my question is: Given the concern to contextualise the formation of preferences and choices, the concept of freedom proposed by Hirschmann seeks to establish that the wishes, preferences and individual actions are also social constructions in the same way that the external conditions are, which work as barriers external to these wishes and preferences internal.

This position does not involve undervaluing the dimension of individual choice, which is vital to issues such as reproductive freedom, sexual harassment, and employment disadvantage. However, individual choices are related to the context, and it is important in two ways: The second way is considering the context as an important element in the formation of identity and self-individual conceptions, that is, its influence on the formation of identities, preferences and choices of individuals.

My proposal on reading freedom largely follows the scheme proposed by Nancy Hirschmannalthough they are not identical. Before exploring this reading about freedom, it is productive to look upon some theoretical considerations about power developed by Amy Allensince such considerations go towards the articulation among concepts and offer some subsidies to the approach I intend to offer in this paper.

Amy Allen focuses on a different, more complete and all-encompassing thinking of power, drawing on the experiences of women. According to the author, feminist approaches, when mobilising the theme of power, usually give emphasis to only one dimension of the concept of power. In others, the emphasis is on power as domination, that is, power is understood as power over something or someone. When power is understood from this perspective, the feminist analyses that share it usually prioritise discussing masculine or patriarchal domination.

However, in the other approach, power is understood as a way of resistance and creative force, that is, it is seen from the perspective of empowerment, as power to do something. Such theories usually have a reference to women’s experiences of care, and understand power as a capacity for transformation and empowerment.

The first aspect to be integrated is, as we have seen, linked to systems of domination. A conception of power should be useful to illuminate the various systems of domination power over — including sexism, racism, heteronormativity and class oppression ALLEN,p. The second aspect, which follows the idea of an integrative view of power, must include a perception of power to do something: The third aspect of a multi-faceted and feminist conception of power encompasses a perception of the collective exercise of power.

This is a vision of power that draws attention to the possibility of building coalitions in the struggle for social equality, understood as power with. The author summarises her propositions as follows: I share with Amy Allen’s power analysis the view that: My argument is that the concept of freedom as the notion of power presented by Allen will be a theoretical and political tool if we are able to mobilize it in different situations.


Reinhard Diestel. Graph Theory. GTM , 5th edition / Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Volume Reinhard Diestel. Graph Theory. Springer GTM , 5th edition Free Preview. The chapter links below will let you view the main text of the book. Reinhard Diestel. Graph Theory. Electronic Edition There is now a 4th electronic edition, available at You should be able.

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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel. Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel. The third edition of this standard textbook of modern graph theory has been carefully revised, updated, and substantially extended. Covering all its major recent developments, Graph Theory can be used grapb as a reliable textbook for an introductory course and as a graduate text: Paperbackpages.

Published February 1st by Springer first published September 30th To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Graph Theoryplease sign up. Lists with This Book. Apr 17, dead letter office rated it really liked it Shelves: I must admit that I really don’t understand why this book is so highly rated.

It is a good reference material. But as a learning material it’s really horrible.

The definitions are way to obtuse confusingly similar notation used for distinct things, at several diesttel new terms are used without ever being defined and terse for learning. Unless you have someone at hand who already understands the presented notions you will slog through the content very slowly.

Oct 25, Dan Boeriu rated it liked it.

Too terse for my taste. It’s an excellent compendium a lot of new material but it’s not a book to learn Graph Theory from.

Graph Theory, 5th Edition [Free Preview]

Readable, especially for a yellow book. May 03, Nicolas rated it it was amazing. I read this book outside of a course, without any pressures, because I’m interested in Systems Science which often uses Graph Theory. I’ve also never read a GTM book before, so though I’d see what it was like. The writing is clear. Each chapter is well introduced, the notes at the end are very helpful, being separate means that they don’t interfere with the reasoning, but the background rounds out the material very well.

The progression from one chapter to the next is clear and made sense to me. T I read this book outside of a course, without any pressures, because I’m interested in Systems Science which often uses Graph Theory. The marginalia referring to other theorems, lemma, and conjectures is very helpful.

The index and list of characters was also very helpful. Although this was a casual reading, I often found myself, reading one chapter, and having aha moments about something in the previous chapter sgoing back, sketching on paper or on a white board. Overall, even with my limited background in mathematics, I really enjoyed reading this work. Comprehensive textbook with challenging questions in each chapter.

The short proofs leave a lot of gaps for the reader to fill in by herself; my professor described Diestel’s proofs as being more like “sequences of claims” than proofs. This style, though, allows the book to pack information into reasonably sized chapters, stating concepts clearly instead of shrouding them in the minutia.

Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Yang Liu rated it it was amazing Feb 06, Leeb rated it really liked it May 28, Sep 14, Lebim added it. Giulio Rossetti rated it it was amazing Jan 31, A rated it really liked it Oct 14, Javier Cano rated it really liked it Sep 15, Udit rated it really liked it Apr 05, Sefa rated it it was amazing May 05, Levi rated it liked it Jan 27, Alander Pereira Santos rated it theogy was amazing Feb grahp, Reyo John rated it did not like it Oct 19, Twan rated it it was amazing Oct 04, Sahil Ahmad rated it it was amazing Dec 29, Livio Fetahu rated it it was amazing Jul 31, Asteris Masouras rated it really liked it Dec 15, John rated it really liked it Aug 15, Sergey rated it really liked it Mar 21, Mihai Barbulescu rated it really liked it Apr 18, Court Corley rated it it was amazing Jul 26, Neelam rated it really liked it May 24, Vincent Luczkow rated it really liked it May 21, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

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INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: TEXT AND CASES – Kindle edition by Francis Cherunilam. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS has 10 ratings and 1 review. This widely Francis Cherunilam Be the first to ask a question about INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS. International Business: Text and Cases 5th Edition by Francis Cherunilam from Only Genuine Business, Investing and Management Books.

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Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page.

This widely adopted text, now in its Fifth Edition, continues to provide in-depth coverage of the multidimensional aspects of international business. In this edition, much of the data and information is updated throughout the text.

It is enriched with references to Indian situations and examples though not diverting from the international cyerunilam.


Many Case Studies giv This widely adopted text, now in its Fifth Edition, continues to provide in-depth coverage of the multidimensional aspects of international business. Many Case Studies given in the book further enhance the value of the text.

It is useful for students of management as well as practising managers. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

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Building structures: from concepts to design. [Malcolm Millais] — “With over pages and over user-friendly diagrams this book is a must for anyone who. Building Structures: From Concepts to Design. by M. Millais. Book Description. Paperback. Format: Paperback. Brand New, Perfect Condition, May Ship From. : Building Structures: From Concepts to Design () by Malcolm Millais and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible.

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Building Structures: From Concepts to Design by M. Millais

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MARTES 20 DE FEBRERO DE Bertoni, “Dicho sea de paso” “Dicho sea de paso”, la antología de Claudio Bertoni, editada por la Editoria. Dicho sea de paso (Claudio Bertoni). 1 like. Book. Dicho sea de paso (Claudio Bertoni). Book. 1 person likes this topic. Want to like this Page? Sign up for. Claudio Bertoni has 25 books on Goodreads with ratings. Claudio Bertoni’s most popular book is Harakiri. Dicho sea de paso by. Claudio Bertoni.

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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Thirteen calves were fed. De um lote de ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs.

Allelochemical regulation of reproduction and seed germination of two Brazilian Baccharis species by phytotoxic trichothecenes. The potent phytotoxic trichothecene roridins and baccharinoids occur naturally in the Brazilian plants, Baccharis coridifolia andB.

Biosynthesis of roridins inB. The roles of the phytotoxins in pollination, seed maturation, and germination of the Baccharis species were investigated. The high pqso of roridins occurred only in seeds resulting from intraspecific pollination, and the concentration of the toxins in the seeds generally increased with seed maturity.

Removal of seed coats from trichothecene-producing Brazilian Baccharis species B. Roridins interacted with gibberellic acid, a germination promoter, but not with abscisic acid, a germination inhibitor.

The results from this study suggest that macrocyclic trichothecenes have a regulatory role s on clqudio and germination of Brazilian Baccharis species in their natural habitat. Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family.

The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in In Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minuta. Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as The North American feverfew–Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in and it caused thousands of cases of so-called parthenium dermatitis.

Ragweed and parthenium dermatitis became prototypes for the classic, so-called “airborne” Compositae dermatitis, that affects primarily exposed skin surfaces, and produces a universal erythroderma. The frequency of contact allergy to Compositae in Europe claudioo higher than previously believed.

It occurs most frequently in middle-aged and elderly persons, but also in all age groups. During the two past decades a more claudil sex ratio has been established. The prevalence varies from 0.

Compositae allergy is among the top ten contact sensitivities in Europe.

In North Europe plants were the cause of 4. Sesquiterpene lactones are the main sensitizers of the Compositae family. Other components, thiophenes and acetylenes are said to elicit only phytophotodermatitis, but recent studies have demonstrated that some thiophenes and benzofuran derivates possess not only phototoxic activity, but also sensitizing properties.

Introduction Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family.

In Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minute Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as The air around intact feverfew Tanacetum parthenium plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler bertonl a dynamic headspace technique.

No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed Medicinal compositae from Brazil. The family Compositae is one of the largest in the plant kingdom. Several species are used in popular medicin. Thus, the leaf extract of Calea pinnatifida Banks, clauvio as aruca, is employed in the treatment of amoebiasis.

A chemical study is carried out in order to discover the active principles of the species. Patch ve with constituents of Compositae mixes. Beroni development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix.

To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Dkcho mixes were most u Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts – are they tolerated by Compositae -allergic patients? Compositae -sensitive patients are routinely warned against topical use sex Compositae -containing cosmetics and herbal remedies. However, the risk of elicitation of dermatitis in presensitized persons is unknown.

Catalog Record: Harakiri | Hathi Trust Digital Library

Bertonk main aim of this study was to assess the significance of d Colophonium and Compositae mix as markers of fragrance allergy: The individual results indicated that simultaneously occurring clwudio reactions to essential oils, colophonium and Compositae were based on cross-reactivity rather than concomitant sensitization. Thus, all patients with positive reaction to the rare fragrance The implication is that Oaso mix To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most useful as screening agents.

The majority of patients tested positive to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive ppaso Roman chamomile. Even though parthenolide seems to be a suitable supplement to the baseline series, the results emphasize that it is important to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants, not only because of the geographical variation, but also because of the potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations and the variability in the individual patient’s exposure and cross-reaction patterns.

Books by Claudio Bertoni

Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin. Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia.

Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes Uredinales and to the Oomycetes Peronosporales. Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec.

Descargar Claudio Silvestrin Book PDF

Libert on Matricaria recutita L. Koch, Phomopsis achillea Sacc. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii P. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. Struikaster is voor het eerst in in Nederland waargenomen bij Kwade Hoek op Goeree. Sindsdien is de soort nog eenmaal waargenomen, in een verwaarloosde volkstuin.

Ondertussen bleek hij tijdens een inspectie in te zijn verdwenen van de eerste locatie. Contact sensitization from Compositae -containing herbal remedies and cosmetics. The Compositae Asteraceae family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe.

Descargar Claudio Silvestrin Book PDF – Free E-Book Download

The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a claudioo number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica Arnica montanaGerman and Roman chamomile Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobilemarigold Calendula officinalisEchinacea and elecampane Inula heleniumhave been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis.

Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely clauvio the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, pso there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene.

The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae -containing products in Compositae -sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark. Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone SL mix, supplemented with Compositae mix CM and other Compositae extracts and claudo where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period.

The in vitro anti-microbial activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Aspilia africana.

Berroni bacterial used for the antimicrobial analysis consisted of 3 clinical strains of. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, 2 clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas The first record of Baccharis L. Asteraceae as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae Lepidopterawith description of new Stigmella species from South America. We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L.

Despite the high species richness dciho Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis. Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones SLs. Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown.

To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower Sunflower-sensitive patients diho identified by aimed patch testing. Ses dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.

A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component brrtoni being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts.

Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers III. The clinical part of the study aimed at describing epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of occupational Compositae dermatitis. Patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone SL and Compositae mixes, feverfew extract and flaudio allergens in selected gardeners showed Compositae dich in 25, 17 females and 8 males. The mean age was lower and the preponderance of women higher compared to classical Compositae dermatitis, and the distribution and course of the dermatitis most often did not differ from other occupational plant dermatoses.

Chrysanthemum Dendranthemamarguerite daisy Argyranthemum frutescens and lettuce Lactuca sativa were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Djcho. Possible risk factors for the development of these were assessed in a stepwise logistic regression model and a history of childhood eczema, hay fever and duration of exposure were significantly associated with Compositae -related irritant and allergic symptoms in both sexes.

Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in one year I. To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity, the recently-developed sesquiterpene lactone mix SL mix was included in the standard patch test series.


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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. The complete details are mentioned below:.

Please Find the List of BSNL JTO Topic Items On the left side.

Candidates appearing in the final year degree examination may also apply provided they possess the required educational qualification by The mode of selection will be done through an All India Competitive Edam. The examination will be of three hours duration with one Question Paper containing the ezam three sections:. The syllabus and standard of paper in engineering subjects will be that of Engineering Examination of an Indian University.

An examination fee of Rs. The amount of fee shall not be accepted in any other form. Original advertisement or photocopy of the format in the advertisement must not be used for applying and in case a candidate submits such an application the same will not be entertained.

The given application format must be separately typed. Micro Processors Specialization Bsnk and Measurement Specialization Control Systems Specialization Background and the previous 22009 for the same. I have not got my admit card.

I am so warried and confused about my admit card and acknowlegement letter. I send my application form to northern telecom region N. Please sent me my admit card. Respected sir, I have not got my admit card.

BSNL Junior Telecoms Officer Question papers with answer free pdf

I send my application form to karnatka telecom circle. Hi Shathiya, The same case with me 209. I didn’t receive any ack card and any admit card from BSNL.

I applied in Chennai Circle. What we have to do? To whom we need to contact. If u get any info on it, Please share. Hi, i hav sent my jto application to maharastra circle, i got my ack bt nt admit card,what to do now? Did any one get acknowledgemnt letter.

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I sent my application to madhya pradesh Telecom circle Sir, I don’t get my jto admit card yet. How I get that? I have send the application hsnl Maharashtra circle.

Please suggest me what to do as soon as possible. Sir i have posted my application form on 17th March in Delhi Janpath B. L office but i don’t receive my roll number. Sir 200 have posted the filled application form. I too didn’t get admit card. I sent my application to Karanataka Telecom circle.

I received the admit card today. What should I do? I am from Rajasthan Telephone circle.

You may visit the bsnl website http: I haven’t received my admit card for JTO I have just logged a complaint. Please do it, this might prompt them to speed up the process. I have not got the JTO admit card and even the acknowledgement. I am from Kolkata Telephone circle. How can I get my admit card? Did any one exxm acknowledgemnt letter. I sent my application to Lucknow up circle. I didn’t get my admit card and not even any acknowledgement card nsnl now.

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Hi, I didn’t get acknowledgement letter saying nsnl application is accepted I sent my application to Chennai Telecom circle I am an electrical and electronics engineering eexam year student.

BSNL: 3945 JTO (Junior Telecom Officers) 2009

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The “ American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis”. The term hyperthyroidism refers to any condition in which there is too much thyroid hormone produced in the body. In other words, the thyroid gland is overactive. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism ATA/AACE guidelines.

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The term hyperthyroidism refers to any condition in which there is too much thyroid hormone produced in the body. In other words, the thyroid gland is overactive. Another term that you might hear for this problem is thyrotoxicosis, which refers to high jyperthyroidism hormone levels in the blood stream, irrespective of their source.

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck.

Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should. Thyroid hormone plays a significant role in the pace of many processes in the body. Hyerthyroidism processes are called your metabolism.

If there is too much thyroid hormone, every function of the body tends to hyperthroidism up. It is not surprising then that some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are nervousness, irritability, increased sweating, heart racing, hand tremors, anxiety, difficulty sleeping, thinning of hypefthyroidism skin, fine brittle hair and weakness in your muscles—especially in the upper arms and thighs.

You may have more frequent bowel movements, but diarrhea is uncommon. You may lose weight despite a good appetite and, for women, menstrual flow may lighten and menstrual periods htperthyroidism occur less often. Since hyperthyroidism increases your metabolism, many individuals initially have a lot of energy.

However, as the hyperthyroidism continues, the body tends to break down, so being tired is very common.

Hyperthyroidism usually begins slowly but in some young patients these changes can be very abrupt. At first, the symptoms may be mistaken for simple nervousness due to stress. If you have been trying to lose weight by dieting, you may be pleased with your success hypdrthyroidism the hyperthyroidism, which has quickened the weight loss, causes other problems.

Sometimes, one or both eyes may bulge. Some patients have swelling of the front of the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland a goiter. Hyperthytoidism type of hyperthyroidism tends to run in families and it occurs more often in young women.

Little is known about why specific individuals get this disease. Another type of hyperthyroidism is characterized by one or more nodules or lumps hyperthyrkidism the thyroid that may gradually grow and increase their activity so that the total output of thyroid hormone into the blood is greater than normal. This condition is known as toxic nodular or multinodular goiter.

Also, people may temporarily have symptoms of hyperthyroidism if they have a condition called thyroiditis. This condition is caused by a problem with the immune system or a viral infection that causes the gland to leak stored thyroid hormone. The same symptoms can also be caused by taking too much thyroid hypsrthyroidism in tablet form. In these last two forms, there is excess thyroid hormone but the thyroid is not overactive. If your physician suspects that you have hyperthyroidism, diagnosis is usually a simple matter.

A physical examination usually detects an enlarged thyroid gland and hyperthyroidim rapid pulse. The physician will also look for moist, smooth skin and a tremor of your fingers. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism will be confirmed by laboratory tests that measure the amount of thyroid hormones— hyperthyroidusm T4 and triiodothyronine T3 —and thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH in your blood. A high level of thyroid hormone in the blood plus a low level of TSH is common with an overactive thyroid gland.

If blood tests show that your thyroid is hyperthgroidism, your doctor may want to measure levels of thyrotropin receptor antibodies TRAbswhich when elevated confirm the diagnosis of Graves disease.

Your doctor may also want to obtain a picture of your thyroid a thyroid scan. The scan will find out if your entire thyroid gland is overactive or whether you have hyperthygoidism toxic nodular goiter or thyroiditis thyroid inflammation. A test that measures the ability of the gland to collect iodine a thyroid uptake may be done at the same time.

No single treatment is best for all patients with hyperthyroidism. The appropriate choice of treatment will be influenced by your age, the type of hyperthyroidism that you yhperthyroidism, the severity of your hyperthyroidism, other medical conditions that may be affecting your health, and your own preference.

It may be a good idea to consult with an endocrinologist who is experienced in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. If you are unconvinced or unclear about any thyroid treatment plan, a second opinion is a good idea.

Hyperthyroidism | American Thyroid Association

Methimazole is presently the preferred one due to less severe side-effects. These drugs work well to control the overactive thyroid, and do not cause permanent damage to the thyroid gland. For patients with toxic nodular or multinodular goiter, antithyroid drugs are sometimes used in preparation for either radioiodine treatment or surgery. Common minor reactions are red skin rashes, hives, and occasionally fever and joint pains.

New Guidelines for Managing Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

A rarer occurring in 1 of patientsbut more serious side effect is a decrease in the number of white blood cells. Such a decrease can lower your resistance to infection.

Very rarely, these white blood cells disappear completely, producing a condition known as agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal problem if a serious infection occurs. If you are taking one of these drugs and develop a fever or sore throat, you should stop the drug immediately and have a white blood cell count that day. Even if the drug has lowered your white blood cell count, the count will return to normal if the drug is stopped immediately.

But if you continue to take one of these drugs in spite of a low white blood cell count, there is a risk of a more serious, even life-threatening infection.

Liver damage is another very rare side effect. A very serious liver problem can occur with PTU use which is why this medication should not generally be prescribed. You should stop either methimazole or PTU and call your doctor if you develop yellow eyes, dark urine, severe fatigue, or abdominal pain. Another way to treat hyperthyroidism is to damage or destroy the thyroid cells that make thyroid hormone.

Because these cells need iodine to make thyroid hormone, they will take up any form of iodine in your bloodstream, whether it is radioactive or not. The radioactive iodine used in this treatment is administered by mouth, usually in a small capsule that is taken just once. The radioactive iodine that is not taken up by the thyroid cells disappears from the body within days over a period of several weeks to several months during which time drug treatment may be used to control hyperthyroid symptomsradioactive iodine destroys the cells that have taken it up.

The result is that the thyroid or thyroid nodules shrink in size, and the level of thyroid hormone in the blood returns to normal. Sometimes patients will remain hyperthyroid, but usually to a lesser degree than before.

For them, a second radioiodine treatment can be given if needed. More often, hypothyroidism an underactive thyroid occurs after a few months and lasts lifelong, requiring treatment. Hypothyroidism can easily be treated with a thyroid hormone supplement taken once a day see Hypothyroidism brochure.

New Guidelines for Managing Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

Radioactive iodine has been used to treat patients for hyperthyroidism for over 60 years and has been hyperthhroidism to be generally safe. Importantly, there has been no clear increase in cancer in hyperthyroid patients that have been treated with radioactive iodine.

More and more children over the age of 5 are also being safely treated with radioiodine. Your hyperthyroidism can be permanently cured by surgical removal of all or most of your thyroid gland. This procedure is best performed by a surgeon who has experience in thyroid surgery.

This extra iodine reduces the aace supply to the thyroid gland and thus makes the surgery easier and safer.

Although any surgery is hyperthyroidsm, major complications of thyroid surgery occur rarely in patients operated on by an experienced thyroid surgeon. After your thyroid gland is removed, hyperthyroldism source of your hyperthyroidism is gone and you will become hypothyroid. As with hypothyroidism that hyperthyriodism after radioiodine treatment, your thyroid hormone levels can be restored to normal by treatment once a day with a thyroid hormone supplement. No matter which of these three methods of treatment are used for your hyperthyroidism, your physician may prescribe a class of drugs known as beta-blockers that block the action of thyroid hormone on your body.

They usually make you feel better within hours to days, even though they do not change the high levels of thyroid hormone in your blood. These drugs may be extremely helpful in slowing down your heart rate and reducing the symptoms of palpitations, shakes, and nervousness until one of the other forms of treatment has a chance to take effect. El hyperthyrkidism de Hipertiroidismo. The thyroid gland located in the neck produces thyroid hormones which help the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working normally.

For more info click here. May 25th is being celebrated by the European Thyroid Association www. The American Thyroid Association, in cooperation with sister international thyroid societies, the European Thyroid Hyperyhyroidism. More Information About Hyperthyroidism. From Mayo Clinic — Some medical discoveries truly stand the test of time.